Minor and major losses in pipes pdf

There are many types of losses of head for flowing liquids such as friction, inlet and outlet losses. Most calculated quantity in pipe flow is the head loss. The volumetric flow rate is the velocity of the fluid multiplied by the crosssectional area. The head loss in various pipe components, termed the minor loss and denoted h lminor.

The major loss is that due to frictional resistance of the. Another case study is taken into consideration, where a pipeline of diameter 1200 mm and length 108 km is studied. The specific hydraulic model that we are concerned with for this experiment is the energy losses. Major losses, colebrookwhite equation, jain equation. Losses due to the local disturbances of the flow in the conduits such as changes in cross section, projecting gaskets, elbows, valves and similar items are called minor losses. Frictional losses major losses usually are responsible for the majority of the pressure losses in a pipe system. Energy losses in pipe flow major energy loss due to friction minor energy losses a. Example lab report losses civl2310 fluid mechanics.

These minor losses cause nonuniformities in the flow path, resulting in small energy losses due to. The major and minor losses in pipes is due to the friction in the pipes and the fitting type of each pipe and the connection. Head losses in pipes pennsylvania state university. If the pipe is long enough the minor losses can usually be neglected as they are much smaller than the major losses. The friction factor for fluid flow can be determined using a moody chart. For a pipeline of small length having many minor appurtenances, the total minor head loss. Gradual expansions or contractions the major losses may not be so minor.

Using the energy equation you can determine the minor loss coe. Recognize the distinction between major losses and minor losses in a pipe system, 2. Even though they are termed minor, the losses can be greater than the major losses, for example, when a valve is almost closed the. Minor in comparison to friction losses which are considered major. This classification into major and minor head losses is rather relative. For flow in a circular pipe, an expression for the head loss due to skin friction can be developed by applying the principles of conservation of energy and linear momentum 1. Students performed an exercise to determine the darcy friction factor for a 5ft length of 1. Experimental values for energy losses are usually reported in terms of a resistance or loss coefficient k as follows. Essentially due to friction, the first type is called linear or major head. For a pipe system that contains many components and a relatively short length of pipe, the. Friction head losses in straight pipes of different sizes can be investigated over a range of reynolds numbers from 103 to nearly 105, thereby covering the laminar. The head loss in various pipe components, termed the minor loss and denoted hl minor. However, pipe systems usually consist of many other components, such as valves, bends, elbows, expansions, etc.

Minor losses are head losses due to flow through fittings and are related by loss coefficient. In the experiment described below, we investigate the frictional resistance to flow along a. In addition, the exercise was performed to understand the effect of minor energy losses due to. For horizontal pipe, with constant diameter this loss may be measured. To find the major losses throughout the system, a technovate fluid circuit system was used. For relatively short pipe systems, with a relatively large. Pdf evaluation of energy losses in pipes researchgate. Friction and minor losses in pipelines 3 school of engineering science mechatronics systems engineering 1 return pipe with return valve to water tank 6 crosssection expansion pvc 2032 2 galvanized steel pipe, 12 7 section for interchangeable measuring objects 3 cupipe 18 x 1 8 pipe bend, pipe angle pvc 20x1. The minor losses are any head loss present in addition to the head loss for the same length of straight pipe. Minor secondary head losses occur at any location in a pipe system where streamlines are not straight, such as at pipe junctions, bends, valves, contractions, expansions, and reservoir inlets and outlets. Head loss in pipe flow major and minor losses portland state.

Friction loss along a pipe introduction in hydraulic. In this practical you will investigate the impact of major and minor losses on water flow in pipes. The overall head loss for the pipe system consists of the head loss due to viscous effects in the straight pipes, termed the major loss and denoted hlmajor. You created this pdf from an application that is not licensed to print to. Major losses are typically head losses in straight pipe sections, while minor losses are head losses within long pipes.

For the major losses, the volumetric flow rate was computed by using the equation. Minor loss losses caused by fittings, bends, valves etc. Head losses, frictional head losses, major head losses, minor head losses, sin gular. Just as certain aspects of the system can increase the fluids energy, there are components of the system that act against the fluid and reduce its energy. This loss can be calculated using the moody chart or colebrook equation. Minor losses in pipes come from changes and components in a pipe system. Major head losses in pipe flow problem will be calculated with the help of darcyweisbach formula as mentioned below and this darcyweisbach formula will be used to calculate the major loss in pipe flow, it does not matter that pipe is horizontal, vertical or on inclined plane.

Additional components valves, bends, tees, contractions, etc in pipe flows also contribute to the total head loss of the system. Minor losses are a larger component in total head loss for. What is major minor losses in a flow through pipe answers. In some cases, minor losses may be greater than major losses cengel and cimbala 2014. Pdf energy losses in pipes used for the transportation of fluids water. Associate professor, mechanical and materials engineering department portland state university, portland, oregon. These losses effect the volumetric flow rate of the fluid through the system. Such losses are generally termed minor losses, although they often account for a major portion of the head loss. Major and minor losses due to pipe diameter and fitting.

For a pipe system that contains many components and a relatively short length of pipe, the minor loss may actually be larger than the major loss. Major losses are head losses due to friction and are related by the dimensionless friction factor. Major head loss head loss or pressure loss due to friction in pipes and ducts. Major and minor losses in pipes free download as powerpoint presentation. Losses are proportional to velocity of flow and geometry of device. Empirical data on viscous losses in straight sections of pipe are correlated by the dimensionless darcy friction factor f. The head loss in various pipe components, termed the minor loss and denoted hlminor. Major losses, colebrookwhite equation, jain equation, moody diagram, minor losses. Effect of minor losses during steady flow in transmission. Major head losses are dependent on the friction factor, and the friction factor is dependent on the reynolds number allen 1973. The friction factor for laminar flow is independent of roughness of the pipes inner surface. Losses are proportional to velocity of flow, geometry of device 2 h k v g 2 l.

Head loss from pipe friction energy loss resulting from friction in a pipeline is commonly termed the friction head loss hf this is the head loss caused by pipe wall friction and the viscous dissipation in flowing water. These additional components add to the overall head loss of the system. Minor losses in pipe flow florida international university. Minor losses in pipe flow are a major part in calculating the flow, pressure, or energy reduction in piping systems. Major and minor losses in pipes gases plumbing scribd. Experiment image and source credits minor loss in pipe or duct components. Each type of loss can be quantified using a loss coefficient k. Minor head loss head loss or pressure loss due to components as valves, bends, tees and the like in the pipe or duct system. Energy losses when a fluid is flowing through a pipe, the fluid experiences some resistance due to which some of the energy of the fluid is lost.

Major and minor losses in pipes mechanical engineering. Liquid moving through pipes carries momentum and energy due to the forces acting upon it such as pressure and gravity. Minor head loss due to components as valves, bends darcys equation can be used to calculate major losses. Losses are proportional to velocity of flow, geometry of device. Head loss can be broken down into major losses and minor losses. In other cases the minor losses are greater than the major losses. Pipes in series volume flow rate is constant head loss is the summation of components. Materials and methods major losses to find the major losses throughout the system, a technovate fluid circuit system was used. Pressure loss in components like valves, bends, tees and similar are called the minor, dynamic or local loss minor loss can be significant compared to major loss. Sudden or gradual flow expansion and flow contraction, entrance and exit flows to and from reservoirs or tanks, bends, elbows, junctions and other fittings, valves, including those completely opened or partially closed.

Head loss in pipe flow major and minor losses me 322 lecture slides, winter 2007 gerald recktenwald. Chapter 7 flow through pipes 71 friction losses of head in pipes 72 secondary losses of head in pipes 73 flow through pipe systems 71 friction losses of head in pipes. Energy losses due to frictional effects of pipe or duct material or due to a change in velocity within a fitting cause energy loss in flowing fluids. This is different from major losses because those come from friction in pipes over long spans. Such losses are generally termed minor losses, with the apparent implication being that the majority of the system loss is associated with the friction in the straight portions of the pipes, the major losses or local losses. The major head loss for a single pipe or duct can be expressed as. The value of k is typically provided for various devices. Major losses occur due to friction within a pipe, and minor losses occur at a change of section, valve, bend or other interruption. Like pipe friction, these losses are roughly proportional to the square of the flow rate. The major and minor losses exercise was performed to gather an understanding of the effect of pipe diameter, pipe material, and flow rate on major energy losses in a flowing fluid. For a long pipeline, on the other hand, skin friction at the pipe wall will predominate. Minor pressure head loss in pipe and duct components. Head loss in pipe flow system due to various piping components such as valves, fittings, elbows, contractions, enlargement, tees, bends and exits will be termed as minor head loss and will be indicated by h lminor. Pressure loss in straight pipes or ducts are called the major, linear or friction loss.

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